Employability skills are indispensable in the current era of technological disruption and globalization. Employers complain about the insufficiency of skills among the workers . Approximately 75 million young people in developing countries are unemployed, and in most countries, youth unemployment rates are 2 to 4 times higher than adults. Further, education providers must support them with knowledge and skills either soft or hard skills relevant to the world of work to make them productive and able to be employed by the industry. Beside technical skills, employers are looking for workers who have some abilities in communication, collaboration, problem solving, and critical thinking ability. More than 50% of stakeholders could not find the right competencies in job seekers in accordance with the vacancies they provided so that more than 80% of jobseekers failed to get a job .
The disruption and globalization era inevitably presents a formidable challenge for the community related to the opening of countries around the world in this case regarding products, services, and labor migration between countries. They also have brought many widespread changes in the world of business, banking, transportation, social society, and even education. The ability to deal with those changes in the era is deemed critical then.
Disruption initiates a new business model more innovatively. The conventional ways, in turn, are abandoned and moved to technology and digitalization. It has caused various problems, including high unemployment.
The high level of unemployment is often associated with the failure of the education system in generating graduates supported with employability skills and high competitiveness. Lack of expertise among job seekers is the cause of increasing unemployment . If the skills’ gap of the job seeker is related to the world of education, then this problem is related to the issue of education quality.
Based on the problems, it is necessary for the institutions of education to prepare their students who not only have technical skills but also employability skills. The biggest challenge in education today is to generate graduates who have academic skills, ability in mastering technical skills, and balanced employability skills . Employability skills are knowledge, skills, and competencies that workers need to have in improving their ability to get and keep a job, progress at work, face change, get other jobs if the worker wants to quit from a job or dismissed and enter more easily into the labor market at different periods of their life cycle. People will be more easily employed if they have extensive education and training, high skills, ability to work in teams, the ability of information and communication technology (ICT), ability to solve problems, and communication skills. This combination of skills enables them to adapt to the changes in the world of work .
People need to develop their potential to have employability skills. This is supported by the Australian Government stating that employability skills are important not only to get a job but also to develop their potential for company success . In addition, people should have the following skills to survive in the job market, including the ability to communicate, problem solving, working in teams, long life learning, and being adaptable to change . This statement is in accordance with the Indonesian Middle Term Program Plan (RPJM) from 2020-2024 stating that to improve the qualified and competitive human resources, it is needed to gain qualified instructional as well by integrating soft skills .
Based on the problems and the importance of students as prospective workers having employability skills and becoming graduates who are ready to work and to be accepted by the workforce, it is deemed necessary to identify the employability skills needed by employers as an effort to face the disruption era.
Considering the importance of employability skills, this research collected data from previous studies that discussed employability skills to deal with the era. In addition, this literature study contributes to show the work skills needed by employers so it can assist education providers in preparing their students to enter the work-force.The data were collected from 2014 to 2019 and they were identified using the Systematic Literature Review (SLR) and mapping method. By the SLR and mapping Method, a systematic review and journal identification can be carried out in each process following the steps or protocols set. The SLR and mapping method can avoid subjective identification. Futhermore, different with other literature reviews proccess, systematic review and mapping methods are employability skills needed by the workforce and reduce bias. It is expected that the identification result will be the literature in terms of of the SLR and mapping method use in journal identification.
2 Research Methods
2.1 Method Review
This research was conducted using the Systematic Literature Review (SLR) and mapping approach – a process of identifying, categorizing, analyzing, evaluating and interpreting all research relevant about employability skills in order to figure out in an auditable, accurate, and fair way . It can also be stated as a process of identifying, assessing, and interpreting all available research evidence with the aim of providing answers to certain research questions . According to Kitchenham  and Neiva, David, Braga, and Campos , this review comprises three main stages:planning, conducting, and reporting the study.
2.2 Review and Mapping Planning
The first stage consisted of identifying needs and developing a review protocol. In Phase 1, the purposes of identifying needs were to find out the definition of employability skills according to the researchers, to identify the types of employability skills needed by employers, and to figure out the way to implement employability skills in learning according to the researcher’s suggestions. Phase 2, meanwhile, was to develop a review protocol by making a research question. The research questions are divided into mapping questions and SLR questions. The Mapping questions are useful for brainstorming in the very beginning steps of a literature study and directing the scope to be studied. The questions used in systematic mapping are as follows:
MQ 1: Which article discusses the most comprehensive about the employability skills needed by employers?
MQ 2: Which article discusses the most complete process of learning employability skills in school?
MQ 3: What research method is the most widely used researcher to assess a person’s level of employability?
Then, the SLR research question are as follows:
- a)RQ1: What is the definition of employability skills according to the researchers?
- b)RQ2: What are the types of employability skills required by employers?
- c)RQ3: What are the types of employability skills needed by employers in the industry revolution 4.0 and the future?
- d)RQ4: How should the education system implement employability skills in school?
2.3 Review and Mapping Conducting
The second stage of SLR is conducting, which consists of five steps: research identification, selection of primary studies, study quality assessment, data extraction & monitoring, data synthesis.
2.3.1 Research Identification
In this step, a search and selection of relevant previous research were carried out. The search was done through a trusted digital library. The digital library used in this SLR included IEEE eXplore (ieeexplore.ieee.org), ScienceDirect (sciencedirect.com), and Springer (link.springer.com).
The search was carried out as follows:
- a)Identifying the search terms from research questions
- b)Identifying search terms in years, titles, abstracts, and relevant keywords. Articles used were between 2014 – 2019.
- c)Identifying synonyms, alternative spellings, and antonyms of the search terms 
2.3.2 Selection of Primary Studies
The study selection criteria were intended to identify primary studies providing the direct evidence about research questions. To reduce the possibility of bias, the selection criteria must be decided during the protocol definition in stage 1 and the inclusion and exclusion criteria must be based on the research question .
The following inclusion criteria were presented below:
IC1: the articles discusses employability skills AND
IC2: the articles discusses the employability skills needed by employers AND
IC3: the articles discusses the employability skills needed in the future OR in the era of technological disruption OR in the industrial revolution AND
IC4: the articles discusses the implementation of employability skills learning in schools.
While the exclusion criteria were established:
EC1: the papers do not discusses employability skills OR
EC2: the papers do not discusses the employability skills needed by employers OR
EC3: the papers do not discusses the employability skills needed in the future OR in the era of technological disruption OR in the industrial revolution OR
EC4: the papers do not discusses the implementation of employability skills learning in schools.
Futhermore, steps in the identification of research and selection of primary studies are shown in the flow chart in Figure 1.
Meanwhile, in order to gain the answer from mapping questions, it was set an approach to note-taking in terms of brief table by title, goal, method, result, strength and weaknesses of article.
2.3.3 Study Quality Assessment
Study quality assessment aimed to provide more detailed inclusion/exclusion criteria, investigate whether quality differences provided explanations for differences in study results, used as a measure of the importance of individual studies when results were being synthesized, guide the interpretation of findings and determine the strength of conclusions, and give recommendations for next research. In addition, quality checklist are made to assess individual studies and support the article selection process .
In SLR research, the data found were evaluated based on the following quality assessment criteria (QA) questions:
- a)QA1: Are journal and proceeding articles published in 2014-2019?
- b)QA2: Do journal and proceeding articles provide a clear definition of employability skills?
- c)QA3: Do journal and proceeding articles state clearly about the employability skills required by employers?
- d)QA4: Do journal and proceeding articles state clearly about the employability skills needed in the industry revolution 4.0 and in the future?
- e)QA5: Do journal and proceeding articles discuss how employability skills should be applied in schools?
From each article, the value of the answers below would be given for each question above.
- a)Y (Yes): for journal and proceedings articles published in 2014 – 2019
- b)Y (Yes): for journal and proceedings articles providing a clear definition of employability skills
- c)Y (Yes): for journal and proceedings articles clearly stating the employability skills needed by employers
- d)Y (Yes): for journal and proceedings articles clearly stating the employability skills needed in the industry revolution 4.0 and the future
- e)Y (Yes): for journal and proceedings articles discussing the implementation of employability skills learning in schools
- f)N (No): for journal and proceedings articles not writing the criteria in the question above.
2.3.4 Data Extraction & Monitoring
Selected primary studies were extracted to collect data that contributed to answering mapping (MQ) and SLR research questions (RQ). For each of the 15 primary studies selected, the data extraction form was completed (step 2 of the fourth step). Data extraction forms were designed to collect data from primary studies that were required to answer research questions. Properties, meanwhile, were identified through research questions. Four properties were then used to answer the research questions as shown in Table 1. Here, data extraction was done iteratively.
4.2 RQ1: What is the definition of employability skills according to the researchers?
Employabiliy skills are the personal attributes enabling the people to get a job and support an individual’s career life more easily. They are a set of skills to perform a particular job including technical skills, higher order thinking skills, personal skills, people skills/social skills, generic skills, and self-perceived employability skills. The lack of employability skills may cause unemployment and hinder people’s career development. To be successful in their work, people need to have employability skills or a mix of them in addition to have technical skills. It is very important for individuals to have those skills. Technological development might influence the employability skills required. Therefore, people are required to renew their skills in accordance with the demands of the workplace, otherwise, it will be difficult for them to get involved in the desired work/industry [11, 14, 26, 27]. Then, the OECD stated that employability refers to an ability to find a job and adapt to labor market demands . Employability skills are non-technical skills needed to enter the workforce, to stay afloat and develop a career in the workplace, or for career development in a new workplace . In summary, employability skills are the set of skills employees should have to perform a particular job and to adapt to any changes in the workplace.